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GED Segments Time Codes

1: Orientation | 2: Passing the GED Writing Test | 3: Getting Ideas on Paper | 4: The Writing Process | 5: Organized Writing | 6: Writing Style and Word Choice | 7: Effective Sentences | 8: Grammar and Usage | 9: Spelling, Punctuation and Capitalization | 10: The Essay | 11: Passing the GED Reading Test | 12: Nonfiction | 13: Fiction | 14: Poetry | 15: Drama | 16: Passing the GED Social Studies Test | 17: Themes in US History | 18: World History | 19: Economics | 20: Civics and Government | 21: Geography | 22: Passing the GED Science Test | 23: Life Science | 24: Earth and Space Science | 25: Chemistry | 26: Physics | 27: Passing the GED Math Test | 28: Number Sense | 29: Problem Solving | 30: Decimals | 31: Fractions | 32: Ratio, Proportion, Percent | 33: Measurement | 34: Formulas | 35: Geometry | 36: Data Analysis | 37: Statistics | 38: Intro to Algebra | 39: Special Topics in Algebra and Geometry

Program 1: Orientation

Focus
In the Orientation program, Kim Leigh Smith, host of the Math programs, and Pearce Bunting, host of the Social Studies programs, introduce the three components of GED Connection. You'll see previews of the video programs and find out how to use them in combination with the workbooks and the LiteracyLink web site.

2:25 Racecar driver Dorothy Baksa talks about getting her GED.
4:20 Hosts Kim Leigh Smith and Pearce Bunting describe video programs.
6:25 Clips from a Math program.
7:25 Hosts describe the workbooks.
8:10 Clip from a Reading program.
13:15 Clip from a Writing program.
14:35 Overview of the LiteracyLink web site.
17:25 Clip from a Social Studies program.
20:30 Clip from a Science program.
21:20 Hosts describe the "Passing the Test" programs and the essay program, which make up the "Fast Track" package.

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Program 2: Passing the GED Writing Test

Martin Mapoma, host
Joan Auchter, GEDTS Director
Arthur Holbrook, Test Specialists, GEDTS
Linda Gazaway, businesswoman/GED Graduate
Elina Bagdasarova, instructor
Jan Isenhour, instructor
Tom Sant, writer/producer
Marty Lopinto, GED instructor
James Tolle, Wendy Wallace father/daughter GED graduates

2:15 An overview of the GED Writing test, multiple choice and essay sections.
4:10 Sample passage with grammatical errors similar to one found on the GED exam, and a discussion of possible answers.
7:30 Characteristics of good writing. Subject/verb agreement. Clarity.
9:00 Sample passage with poor construction.
11:10 Sample passage with subject/verb agreement errors.
13:45 Sample passage with poor sentence organization.
17:10 Discussion of the mechanics of writing, with a sample passage showing homonym confusion.
19:10 General information about the GED Writing Test from Joan Auchter.
19:45 Suggestions from GED graduates and teachers on preparing for the essay.

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Program 3: Getting Ideas on Paper

Martin Mapoma, host
Frank X Walker, writer,
Bernard Clay Natalie Goldberg, writer
Crystal Wilkinson
, writer
Marty Lopinto, instructor
Denise Chavez, writer
Pam Fiore, student writer

2:30 Try free writing; pick a topic and jot down words and thoughts quickly without worrying about punctuation, spelling or structure.
7:50 Write regularly to become more comfortable writing, Keep a diary or journal.
11:55 Tell your story. Write about what you know and what you care about. Chavez reads a passage from Face of an Angel.
19:15 Explore different kinds of writing. Write about something you'd like to know more about.
22:25 Read aloud what you've written. An instructor reads "Tranquility Corner."

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Program 4: The Writing Process

Martin Mapoma, host
Phyllis MacAdam, instructor
Andy Fitzgerald, writer/tutor
Terry Chase, writer/director
Blaine Parker, writer
Eric Eaton, writer
Frances McCue John Akins, student writer
Joan Fiset, writer/instructor
John French, instructor
Crystal Wilkinson, writer

:35 Writing is a process.
3:30 Writers brainstorm to create an exhibit for a museum. A class brainstorms to get story ideas about a hero.
6:15 Group or cluster ideas, to write about a new car.
8:00 John Akins writes about difficult experiences, such as combat or forgotten memories.
9:35 Write a rough draft: prepare a working model, state your thesis, structure the piece, develop a lead, use specific examples and personal experience.
14:20 Revise: read over what you've written, review for content and rearrange if necessary. Andy Fitzgerald reads a passage from Dusk.
20:00 Check for technical errors, such as spelling, punctuation, sentence structure.

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Program 5: Organized Writing

Martin Mapoma, host
Tom Sant Joan Fiset, writer
Barb Warriner, writer
Phyllis MacAdam, instructor
Jennifer McCarthy, writer
Shawn Wong, writer
Darrell Fry, sports writer
Frances McCue, writer
Helen Sablan, instructor
Tori Murden, writer/rower

1:50 Characteristics of well-organized writing.
3:00 Purpose and organization, audience, structure, sequence.
5:25 The introduction: the lead, main idea, thesis statement.
7:20 Writing a lead - what will hook the reader?
9:15 The body: support your idea with reasons, facts and examples. Ask yourself: How? Why? Says who?
12:00 Structuring the body: sequence of events, flow.
13:45 Telling a story.
15:50 Compare and contrast.
17:55 Cause and effect.
18:20 Make your writing convincing.
18:55 Writing your conclusion.
20:10 Some handy ideas: The Guiding Hand, 3 x 5 cards, taking a walk.
24:40 The five-paragraph essay.

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Program 6: Writing Style and Word Choice

Don Mortland, writer/volunteer
Ken Tucker, entertainment critic
Cass Irvin, writer
Mary Johnson, editor
Denise Mitchell, writer
Anne Walker, designer
Jan Isenhour, instructor
Aaron Counts, instructor
Scott Rice, professor

1:25 To be effective, the style of an adopt-a-pet ad must appeal to its audience.
4:30 Develop your own voice, and adapt your writing for your audience and the publication.
5:55 Write from personal experience to help readers understand your perspective.
9:00 Choosing the right words in marketing Girl Scout Cookies.
11:00 Choose your tone carefully, considering your audience.
12:15 Find your own voice. The Boot journal project.
16:00 Tips on writing the GED essay.
16:20 Overdone writing: the Bulwer-Lytton Contest.
18:40 Avoid obscure words that might detract from the story.
20:00 Cut out unnecessary words. Avoid cliches and jargon.
23:25 Good writing is precise and vivid; "Hair Day," by student Norman King.

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Program 7: Effective Sentences

Martin Mapoma, host
Jan Isenhour, instructor
Scott Rice, professor
Frances McCue, writer
Ken Tucker, entertainment critic
Denise Chavez, writer
Helen Sablan, instructor

1:40 The difference between speaking and writing.
2:35 A good sentence expresses a complete thought. Parts of a sentence.
5:15 Sentence fragments can confuse the reader.
6:15 Why "Because I can't" isn't a sentence.
7:20 Fixing a fragment.
11:55 Run-on sentences and how to fix them.
14:40 Sentence length affects tone.
17:10 Simple and compound sentences. Coordinating conjunctions: BOYS FAN.
23:10 Grammatical constructions are like power tools.
24:40 Read well-written material to improve your own writing.

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Program 8: Grammar and Usage

Martin Mapoma, host
Ken Tucker, entertainment critic
Janis Garr, human resource manager
Thomas Meneou, state trooper
Jan Isenhour, instructor
Shawn Wong, writer
Darrell Fry, sports writer
Marty Lopinto, instructor
Jennifer McCarthy, writer
Barb Wariner, writer

1:20 Many reasons to follow rules of grammar.
2:05 Nouns, pronouns, antecedents.
6:05 When should you use he or him? She or her? Who or whom?
8:05 Forming possessives from nouns and pronouns. When to use an apostrophe.
9:20 Verb forms: singular/plural, regular/irregular.
12:05 Subject-verb agreement can be tricky.
14:45 Verb tense gives a sense of time. Consistency helps the reader.
19:20 Adjectives and adverbs.
23:40 Check your work for accuracy.

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Program 9: Spelling, Punctuation and Capitalization

Martin Mapoma, host
Denise Chavez, writer
Ken Tucker, entertainment critic
Janis Garr, human resource manager
Jan Isenhour, instructor
Shawn Wong, writer
Darrell Fry, sports writer
Marty Lopinto, instructor
Jennifer McCarthy, writer
Barb Wariner, writer
Andy Fitzgerald, writer

2:00 Punctuation helps the reader understand what's going on.
6:45 Commas and semicolons indicate pauses. Guidelines for using them.
12:45 When to use capitals.
15:20 Spelling tips: watch out for homonyms and keep a list of words you commonly misspell to find patterns.
21:35 Mnemonics - devices to help you remember tricky words.

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Program 10: The Essay

GED Testing Service experts, teachers, students, and writers give advice about the GED essay and about writing in general.
Martin Mapoma, host
Joan Auchter, GED Testing Service Director
Arthur Holbrook, GED Testing Service Writing Assessment Specialist
Dean Doodigian, GED grad, college student
Marty Lopinto, GED instructor
Phyllis MacAdam, instructor
Denise Chavez, writer

2:15 What the GED essay is, and isn't.
4:05 The prompt.
7:00 General guidance for writing and editing.
10:40 How the essay is scored.
13:00 Examples of two essays, with explanations of their strong and weak points.
19:00 Advice for improving your writing.
21:25 Practical tips for getting ready to take the test.

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Program 11: Passing the GED Reading Test

:30 Host Barbara Alvarez, Test Editor Renee Shea, and GEDTS Director Joan Auchter describe the Reading Test.
2:55 Alvarez and Shea discuss how comprehension is tested and give a sample question based on Pauline Kael's review of "Batman." Possible answers are considered.
7:40 Teachers explain how analysis skills are tested. Alvarez presents a passage, with a question and possible answers.
10:35 Test tip: When in doubt, guess.
11:00 Shea explains how application skills are tested. A sample question is presented with possible answers.
13:55 Test tip: Teachers talk about test anxiety.
14:45 Shea explains how synthesis skills are tested. Alvarez presents a passage from Linda Hogan's novel Power, and gives a sample question with possible answers.
19:15 Test tip: Strategies for multiple choice tests.
20:15 Author George Ella Lyon reads and discusses Elizabeth Bishop's poem "One Art." Alvarez gives a sample question with possible answers.
25:00 Test tip: Read directions carefully!

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Program 12: Nonfiction

:30 Host Barbara Alvarez defines nonfiction as writing based on facts and reality.
1:15 Daycare owner Christine Day talks about how reading and education helped her start a successful business.
6:00 Alvarez discusses how information is organized, when to skim or read carefully, finding the main idea; and how the writer supports arguments. She explains the difference between fact and opinion.
7:45 Film critic Sam Adams talks about writing opinions and film criticism.
10:15 An onscreen reading passage reviews His Girl Friday, by director Howard Hawks. Adams analyzes the review, showing how opinions color the facts.
15:50 GED Graduate Jennifer Sawyer talks about nonfiction books she's enjoyed.
16:30 Former gang member Luis Rodriguez talks about his life and his profession as a writer. He reads from his book Always Running and talks about the importance of details in writing. Students respond.
25:35 Alvarez says to look for main ideas and supporting details.

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Program 13: Fiction

:34 Host Barbara Alvarez describes the GED Language Arts Reading Test.
1:20 Author Edwidge Danticat tells how, at 12 years old, she moved from her native Haiti to Brooklyn and how she began writing as a way of understanding that experience.
3:28 Edwidge Danticat reads from he novel Breath, Eyes, Memory and explains how dialogue illustrates the characters' emotional states.
8:03 Kenneth McClane, Professor at Cornell University, describes how James Baldwin's story Sonny's Blues helped him understand conflict within his family.
11:40 Mike Vail, GED Instructor, and GED students in Philadelphia discuss internal and external conflict in Sonny's Blues.
15:19 Author George Ella Lyon reads from Flannery O'Connor's story A Good Man is Hard To Find and discusses tone and point of view.
19:39 Martha Womack, Edgar Allan Poe Scholar from Virginia, shows how Pie uses words and setting in The Tell-Tale Heart.

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Program 14: Poetry

:40 Barbara Alvarez talks about poetry on the Reading Test.
1:20 Poets Sonia Sanchez and Robert Pinsky talk about how to read a poem. Sanchez reads Robert Hayden's "Those Winter Sundays," and discusses the poem with a class.
8:55 GED graduate Jennifer Sawyer talks about her favorite poem by Luis Rodriguez, "The Rooster Who Thought He Was a Dog."
9:44 Alvarez and Pinsky discuss how experience affects our feelings about a poem. Pinsky describes The Favorite Poem Project. A college student reads Robert Frost's "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening." Alvarez talks about rhyme and rhythm in the poem.
17:15 Sanchez reads her poem "Last Recording Session for Papa Joe" and explains how she used rhythm and figurative language to tell the story.
21:15 A young woman reads and discusses her favorite poem, Emily Dickinson's "I'm Nobody."
23:20 Alvarez describes poetry's wide appeal. Poet Ron Carter talks about discovering poetry while he was in prison, and reads his poem "Cowboy's Love Affair."

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Program 15: Drama

:30 Host Barbara Alvarez talks about dialogue, scripts, and the history of drama. Actors Jon Jory and Michael Dixon give a short history of drama in the Western world.
3:15 Alvarez describes a dramatic script.
3:55 GED student Milagros Vega talks about "Consequences," a play she wrote as a class assignment. Instructor Larry Moses talks about teaching drama.
6:30 Moses and Vega discuss stage directions and dialogue, and explain how to read a script.
8:00 Vega and Moses talk about plot, character, motivation, conflict and the set.
12:00 A GED class reads a scene from "Consequences."
15:40 Barbara Alvarez talks about the kinds of drama test items found on the GED Language Arts Reading Test. Look for clues to conflict and motivation when you read the drama passage. Analyze the passage as your read.
16:40 Actors rehearse and discuss a scene from George Bernard Shaw's play, "Heartbreak House."
25:00 Jory explains the importance of performance in a drama.

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Program 16: Passing the GED Social Studies Test

:00 Delaware Governor Ruth Ann Minner talks about getting her GED.
2:50 GED Testing Service Director Joan Auchter and Test Specialist Joyce Hoover give advice about the Social Studies Test.
4:10 Sample test question on ancient Egyptian religion. Host Pearce Bunting reviews possible answers and explains the best choice.
6:30 Historian Mary Winter and professor David Zurick explain scale and focus and how to read symbols in the map legend.
8:30 Sample test question reading a map of the US showing percentages of foreign-born living in each state.
10:20 Hoover says to know the continents and the oceans and be able to locate the states on a map. Professor Michael Berheide explains how to read bar graphs, pie charts, and line graphs.
14:25 Sample test question interpreting a bar graph showing data about NAFTA.
17:30 Minner offers test-taking tips; Professor James Klotter offers advice for studying history. Instructor Nancy Mautz and Professor Kristin Stapleton explain B.C., A.D., B.C.E., and C.E.
20:55 Sample test question analyzing a political cartoon.

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Program 17: Themes in US History

1:30 Cherokee historian Freeman Owle explains that early America was home to many native societies.
3:30 European settlers brought diseases which devastated Indian populations. Spanish, French, Dutch and English settlers came to the New World for land, treasure, trade opportunities and freedom.
5:05 Archaeologist William Kelso and curator Bly Straube explain how artifacts uncovered at Jamestown indicate early British settlers were industrious.
8:55 Historian Ed Ayres discusses the colonists' revolt and formation of a new nation.
11:35 The Louisiana Purchase significantly increased the size of the new country.
13:00 Owle tells how white settlers forced Indians to move west on the Trail of Tears.
15:00 Professor Charles Pace describes the impact of slavery on the U.S.
19:35 Professor Patricia Cooper explains how immigrants provided a ready workforce for the Industrial Revolution.
21:00 Historian Gregory Fitzsimons tells how many who left Ireland because of the potato famine found work in American mills.
23:40 America saw amazing changes between 1900-2000.

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Program 18: World History

1:20 Instructor Nancy Mautz gives an overview of Ancient Civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus River Valley. Professor Kristin Stapleton describes ancient Chinese civilization.
2:35 Host Pearce Bunting and others describe technology in the development of irrigation, roads, walls, and wars.
6:45 Host Pearce Bunting and others describe technology in the development of irrigation, roads, walls, and wars.
10:00 The Chinese invention of gunpowder changed the balance of power in the world.
13:45 During the Renaissance, with a renewed interest in Greek and Roman culture, arts and sciences flourished in the Western world.
15:10 The printing press allowed information to be shared by everyone.
17:15 During the Industrial Revolution machines affected people and institutions, the division of labor, and the role of women.
21:00 The 20th Century saw tremendous conflict and change with major wars, the nuclear bomb, widespread use of electricity and petroleum, and a vast array of inventions.
23:50 Our perspective on world history depends on our background.

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Program 19: Economics

1:35 Professor Gail Hoyt describes economics is a social science that involves watching how people behave and how they make choices when faced with scarcity.
2:35 Teachers Gail Hoyt and Tamara Giecek explain how we make choices; Professor William Hoyt talks about how costs go with every choice.
4:00 Giecek explains how global marketplace relies on supply and demand.
8:10 Gail Hoyt and a Papa Johns Pizza executive discuss global marketplace competition.
11:05 Individual decisions about what we do with our money, including credit cards, influence the economy as a whole.
13:30 Since their inception, labor unions have had significant impact on the marketplace.
18:20 Understanding the federal government and the U.S. economy means understanding: the Federal Reserve System, interest rates, inflation, fiscal policy, taxes, the Consumer Price Index, Gross Domestic Product.
25:35 Tips on preparing for the economics part of the GED Social Studies Test.

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Program 20: Civics and Government

:35 Host Pearce Bunting discusses what it means to be a citizen. Citizens talk about voting.
1:50 Professors Michael Berheide and Saundra Audrey discuss the beginning of U.S. government structure, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.
4:30 Bunting describes the Federalist System and the three branches of government.
8:15 Berheide and Audrey trace development of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
10:15 Judges and attorneys discuss the right to a trial by jury and the responsibility of jury duty.
11:45 The Supreme Court's decision in Brown vs. The Board of Education marked a milestone in civil rights legislation and integration.
13:30 The U.S. Constitution evolves along with our nation and allows for judicial review.
15:25 Delaware Governor Ruth Ann Minner and others explain the importance of voting.
17:50 College students help SE Asian immigrants achieve U.S. citizenship. They discuss the value of being U.S. citizens.
25:30 Bunting reviews and gives tips for succeeding on the Social Studies Test.

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Program 21: Geography

1:45 Professors David Zurick and Gary Shannon and geographer Matt Rosenberg discuss geography as an integrative science that studies sociology, the environment, and geology.
3:10 Physical geography studies places; cultural geography studies people. Native American Freeman Owle talks about his people and their connection with the land.
6:00 Professor Charles Pace talks about life on his father's farm. Geographers discuss how people adapt to or change our environment, specifically in the Arizona desert and the Florida Everglades.
13:20 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) use computers to store and analyze geographic data.
14:50 Know how to read a map for the GED exam. Geographers describe different types of maps and tell how one scientist used a map to pinpoint the source of a cholera epidemic.
19:30 Longitude and latitude lines provide points of reference. The Global Positioning System relies on a grid of satellites. The Degree Confluence Project collects photos taken where latitude and longitude lines cross.
25:40 Host reviews and gives tips for succeeding on the Social Studies Test.

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Program 22: Passing the GED Science Test

2:40 GEDTS director Joan Auchter describes the Science Test.
4:40 Host Aaron Freeman describes structure of test questions, gives a practice question based on a passage about how infrared radiation keeps food warm, and explains the correct answer.
9:20 Scientists and teachers describe the scientific method and explain its practical applications.
12:55 Author Harold McGee explains how we use science in our everyday lives and work.
14:40 Freeman presents two more practice questions based on a passage about possible correlation between memory loss and head injuries sustained during soccer.
19:20 Test tip: Read carefully and read all possible answers to each question.
21:05 Test tip: Read graphically. Two more practice questions with answers and explanations, based on a map of the Midwest showing tornado activity.
23:45 Should students guess or skip a question they don't know? Joan Auchter offers advice.

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Program 23: Life Science

:25 Host Aaron Freeman gives an overview of life science.
1:45 Biochemist Maria Ghirardi explains the parts of a cell. She describes how plant and animal cells are alike and different and explains photosynthesis.
5:05 Test Connection: photosynthesis.
6:05 Biologist Wintfred Smith explains the food web, made up of many food chains, and the interdependence of living things.
9:00 Scientists Elaine Mardis and Sandra Clifton define terms used in genetics: genome, DNA, chromosomes, genes. They explain cell division (mitosis and meiosis), and describe the Human Genome Project and its potential benefits.
13:40 Test connection: the Human Genome Project.
15:50 Living history farm manager Ralph Ward talks about changes over generations in the breeding of Percheron draft horses.
18:40 Paleontologist Glenn Storrs talks about evolution theory, paleontology, and fossils.
20:50 Biology teacher Mark Smith and naturalist David Haggard discuss the effect of DDT on the bald eagle population at Reelfoot Lake.
23:45 Biologist David Babb describes the ecosystem of a coral reef.

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Program 24: Earth and Space Science

:30 Host Aaron Freeman introduces earth and space science.
1:35 Scientists Gary Patterson and Michael Ellis explain earthquakes, plate tectonics and the tools used to study them.
7:50 Test Connection: earthquakes.
9:35 Physics and astronomy teacher Chris Webb explains scientific theory about how the earth was formed, its relationship to the sun, and why the earth is habitable.
11:30 Freeman introduces the concept of cycles. Webb explains the rock cycle and what it tells us about the earth.
14:00 Biologist Wintfred Smith explains the water cycle and how much of life on earth depends on fresh water, yet salt water covers most of the earth.
16:00 Test Connection: interpreting a diagram of the water cycle.
17:35 Meteorologist Kenny Priddy talks about the science of weather and explains how weather systems are tracked and forecasts are made.
21:30 Scientists Carol Riordan and Cecile Warner explain solar energy, wind power, and other types or renewable energy.

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Program 25: Chemistry

:30 Host Aaron Freeman introduces the science of chemistry.
1:15 Artist/glassblower Stephen Powell explains the chemical makeup and properties of glass and the effects of heat on glass.
4:30 Chemistry teacher Charlotte Ray explains matter (elements, mixtures and compounds) and atoms (protons, neutrons, electrons and nucleus)
8:30 Test Connection: mixtures and compounds.
10:05 Ray demonstrates a chemical reaction by breaking down sugar with sulfuric acid.
11:50 Author Harold McGee demonstrates chemistry in the kitchen, both in the combining of ingredients and the application of heat.
15:50 Chemistry professors John Selegue and James Holler explain reactive and non-reactive elements as they appear on the Periodic Table.
19:05 Test Connection: the Periodic Table.
21:15 Chemist Bonnie Hames discusses a practical application of chemistry in studying the properties of wood.
23:00 David Foster and Julie Gee, of the American Cave Conservation Association, describe the cleanup and recovery of a badly polluted ground water system under a city.

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Program 26: Physics

:30 Host Aaron Freeman introduces the basics of physics.
1:30 Physics teacher Chris Webb explains the law of conservation of energy as it applies to the roller coaster. He defines potential and kinetic energy and explains Newton's first and second Laws.
5:30 Test Connection: Newton's three laws of motion.
7:10 Rocket scientists Wendy Cruit and Shawn Fears discuss thrust, drag, gravity, and velocity as they apply to space flight.
9:10 Test Connection: thermodynamics.
10:00 Physics teacher/performer Lynda Williams explains sound waves, frequency, pitch and cycles.
13:40 Technician Craig King and sound designer Jonathan Parke discuss acoustic considerations in setting up a show.
16:10 Test Connection: interpreting a chart showing sound frequency and pitch measured in Hertz.
20:10 Test Connection: electromagnetic radiation.
20:50 Lumpp describes the electromagnetic spectrum.
22:10 Radiologist Dr. Roy Waller and technician Mary Thomason explain how MRI technology allows them to see image "slices" of a patient.

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Program 27: Passing the GED Math Test

:10 GED test editor Kenneth Pendleton talks about the math test. Host Kim Leigh Smith recalls math anxiety.
3:00 Pendleton, instructors, and students talk about preparing to pass the test.
6:15 Smith gives tips, with sample questions and answers on screen. Smith explains setting up a problem.
9:15 GEDTS director Joan Auchter and students advise reading test questions carefully.
11:30 Smith, Professor Zalman Usiskin and students talk about using number sense and estimation BEFORE looking at multiple choice answers. Usiskin tells how test designers construct answers and cites common pitfalls to avoid.
15:45 Smith and Pendleton describe alternate formats and demonstrate bubbling in the grid and using the coordinate plane grid.
20:30 Smith and Pendleton work with the Casio fx-260 Solar Calculator. Students discuss when to use the calculator.
23:40 Auchter and students give tips on being mentally and physically prepared for the test.

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Program 28: Number Sense

1:00 Host Kim Leigh Smith talks about how people use number sense to make decisions.
4:00 People talk about how they make buying decisions.
5:00 Professor Keith Devlin discusses what numbers are, how they came to be, and numbers as language.
9:40 Tap dancers at Northwestern University talk about using numbers in dance.
11:00 Smith explains the number line and how to use it. Professor Zalman Usiskin demonstrates.
13:30 Smith and Usiskin talk about value and synonyms in numbers.
15:00 A musician and a tap dancer discuss how numbers have meaning in life.
16:45 Smith and others discuss using estimation to solve problems.
20:50 Smith talks about the need to understand what's being asked. A math teacher explains that people learn in different ways and advises trying different techniques to see which ones work best for you.
23:30 Smith reminds learners that math is more than knowing number facts; it involves knowing what to do with the numbers.

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Program 29: Problem Solving

2:10 Math teachers discuss problem-solving.Smith and Professor Zalman Usiskin explain problem solving as a process. Step One: understand what you want to know.
7:45 Teachers and a developer discuss word problems.
8:45 Step Two: gather the information you need. Credit managers explain car loans and interest payments.
12:09 Step Three: set up the problem.
14:24 Step Four: decide which operation to use. Teachers suggest looking for "of," "total," and "each" in the problem.
16:00 Step Five: do the operation. Decide whether to use a calculator, mental math, or pencil and paper. A car shopper asks about monthly payments. Smith shows how to double-check the price quote. Students solve a math problem involving interest.
18:50 Professor Keith Devlin and others talk about the order of operations.
23:42 Step Six: check your answer. Does it make sense?
25:40 Smith reviews the steps.

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Program 30: Decimals

:55 Host Kim Leigh Smith tells how decimals are used.
1:30 Teachers explain the relationship of tenths to a whole, as dimes to a dollar. A bank teller explains decimal places on a deposit slip and decimals as fractions.
7:35 Math teachers explain how decimals, fractions and percents are related and how decimals are sometimes used to show very large numbers.
10:20 A math teacher shows how to read decimals at the gas pump; a teacher and a bank teller explain how to read decimals in banking.
13:45 Math teachers explain how to "round off" decimals and give examples.
16:00 Teachers explain adding and subtracting decimals, keeping numbers lined up in columns.
19:00 Teachers explain how to multiply decimals, making sure to keep the numbers lined up and keep track of the decimal position.
22:40 Teachers divide decimals by long division, first moving decimal points in the divisor and the dividend to the right, keeping columns lined up.

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Program 31: Fractions

1:35 Host Kim Leigh Smith introduces fractions. Cooking school students practice using fractions in recipes. GED students practice fractions using a ruler.
3:50 GED students learn about the numerator and denominator using doughnuts.
6:00 GED teachers use a variety of number lines to show fractions. GED students practice reading fractions.
8:30 Musicians demonstrate fractions as part of musical expression: keeping time, using notes and measures.
10:40 GED learners and teachers talk about common denominators and how to use them.
13:00 Math teachers show how to add and subtract fractions. People in a variety of occupations show how they use fractions to do their work.
15:45 Classroom students and workers on the job show how to multiply and divide fractions. A math teacher explains how to use factors in reducing fractions to lowest terms.
20:45 Teachers explain how reciprocals work.

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Program 32: Ratio, Proportion, Percent

1:22 Shoppers compare prices at the fruit stand.
2:20 Smith explains that a ratio is actually a fraction. Math teachers demonstrate using examples from every day life.
4:50 Smith explains unit rate. Math teachers and others demonstrate how to use unit rates when you're shopping.
6:00 An urban planner shows how he uses ratio in determining the size of a building compared to the size of the lot.
8:20 Financial advisors show how percentage is used in computing the cost of financing cars, paying sales taxes, buying stocks, using credit cards, determining discounts.
18:00 A math teacher explains how to set up a proportional equation and how to multiply and divide cross products to find a missing value.
22:00 A ship's captain demonstrates how proportion is used in reading navigational maps.
23:30 Artists and filmmakers show how they use proportion and scale to create effects.

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Program 33: Measurement

:50 Professor Zalman Usiskin and host Kim Leigh Smith discuss ways to measure.
1:55 Students measure their height; a carpenter explains how he uses a tape measure.
4:20 Smith talks about converting inches and millimeters into picas and points in typography.
5:30 Smith discusses volume and measuring quarts; students show how they convert recipes into smaller portions. Smith talks about converting measurements into different units; the cooking school instructor demonstrates.
9:15 Smith explains converting in order to add units; an architect explains how she uses conversions.
10:20 Smith describes one-dimensional measurements; a landscaper measures perimeter.
12:40 Smith, a teacher, and a landscaper discuss measuring area; an architect and a landscaper talk about measuring volume.
18:00 Smith explains converting square inches to square feet; the architect shows conversion to cubic units.
19:20 Smith and Usiskin describe the metric system.

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Program 34: Formulas

1:30 A city planner talks about using formulas to preserve scenic views.
2:10 Host Kim Leigh Smith, an architect and a city planner talk about using formulas.
4:09 Smith discusses algebra, variables, and a formula for finding area.
5:50 Smith explains the formula S=D/T. A ship's captain tells how to determine your location at sea.
7:00 Smith and an architect discuss finding the missing link in an algebraic expression by isolating the variable.
8:50 Smith uses pi to find the circumference or the area of a circle; teachers demonstrate.
13:19 Smith talks about formulas on the GED math test. The architect shows how to calculate areas of shapes other than circles or squares. Students demonstrate.
18:50 Smith explains how to find the volume of a cube. The architect tells how she discovered the dimensions of a concealed room in a building she was restoring.
21:00 Smith and a construction boss talk about using a formula to determine how much concrete is needed for a job.

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Program 35: Geometry

1:00 Host Kim Leigh Smith tells how geometry uses lines to describe how we see the world.
2:15 A cartoonist shows point of view; a graphic artist talks about using lines and shapes in designing print pieces.
3:45 Smith, a GED instructor and Professor Zalman Usiskin discuss geometry terms.
6:00 A ship's captain explains latitude and longitude.
7:40 Instructor Billie Travis talks about labeling angles and sides.
13:40 Smith and teachers discuss supplementary, vertical, and congruent angles, then transversals and corresponding angles.
18:00 Smith tells how triangles are classified by shape.
19:40 The captain explains using triangulation to find a location on the ocean.
20.15 A class discusses equilateral tiangles.
21:00 Usiskin talks about using the ratios to find similarities among triangles. Smith explains how to use the Pythagorean theorem and how to find the area of a triangle. An architect shows how she uses formulas in her work.

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Program 36: Data Analysis

1:40 Host Kim Leigh Smith talks about personal information. A dietitian shows a calorie intake chart.
3:45 A stock analyst discusses data analysis and uses a chart to track an investment.
5:30 Smith talks about reading tables. Usiskin tells how personal loan rates are shown in ads. An artist shows how graphs can make data easier to understand.
7:30 Bar and column graphs are useful for comparing data. Usiskin discusses graphs in newspapers and magazines.
9:25 Smith gives advice on reading graphs. An artist shows a graph of military personnel on active duty.
10:25 Smith talks about circle or "pie" graphs; teachers give examples.
13:50 Smith tells how line graphs show change over time; they help investors follow the stock market.
15:00 Smith talks about what a graph represents; an investor and a reporter tell how data can be misleading.
19:50 Smith explains averages; teachers show how to find the median and the mean and explain mode.

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Program 37: Statistics

2:00 City planners talk about the value of statistics in urban development grants.
3:15 Host Kim Leigh Smith describes the U.S. census. City planners talk about how a city uses census data to plan for the future. Professor Zalman Usiskin discusses head count versus sampling in the census.
8:25 Smith explains random sampling; Usiskin demonstrates by calculating children's heights.
10:25 Smith talks about systematic sampling and self-selected sampling. A data analyst describes telephone sampling and polling.
11:50 Smith and the data analyst discuss margin of error in polling.
14:30 Smith talks about probability; instructors use a coin toss, with 50-50 odds, and talk about relative frequencies.
22:00 Smith demonstrates probability in drawing a card from a deck. Usiskin explains dependent and independent events.
24:00 Smith discusses the probability of winning a lottery; Professor Keith Devlin demonstrates on a football field.

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Program 38: Intro to Algebra

:00 Host Kim Leigh Smith and Professor Keith Devlin use chess to explain algebra.
1:40 Smith and Professor Zalman Usiskin compare an equation to a balance.
3:30 Smith explains unknowns and variables.
6:00 A math teacher shows how to solve A = LW with values substituted for the variables.
8:45 Students use the equation a + b = 90 to find how many degrees are in an angle.
9:40 Smith tells how algebra is used to solve routine problems. A CPA shows how a computer spread sheet formula automatically totals sales tax.
10:30 Smith gives advice for the GED Math Test. Usiskin shows how to simplify an equation.
12:05 Smith reviews basic operations. Teachers explain commutative and associative properties.
14:44 Smith explains the distributive property; Usiskin shows how they work in equations.
16:45 Smith describes positive and negative numbers. Teachers demonstrate with graphics, number lines and temperature readings.
23:25 Smith multiplies and divides negative numbers.

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Program 39: Special Topics in Algebra and Geometry

1:00 Host Kim Leigh Smith talks about patterns, constant relationships, and the coordinate plane.
1:35 Professor Zalman Usiskin defines patterns and gives examples. Smith demonstrates a doubling pattern.
4:30 Smith looks for pairs of values. Usiskin sets up a graph showing children's growth patterns.
9:00 The GED Math Test asks you to find points on a plane. A math teacher explains how the x and y-axes are set up, and shows how to read ordered pairs.
12:00 Usiskin shows how to graph the equation x + y = 1. Smith explains a pattern as a relationship between x and y. Weavers demonstrate.
16:20 Smith compares graphs. A teacher refers to the example of running speed. Usiskin shows a graph of world records for running the mile.
20:00 Smith explains positive and negative slope. The weavers show how they alter curves in a pattern.
22:35 Smith explains graphing as a picture of an equation; Usiskin assigns coordinate values to a stick figure on graph.

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